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phonological awareness

Language-Based Learning Disabilities (LBLD): A Primer

Blog Type:  Learning Disabilities Date Posted:  Thursday, October 26, 2017 Byline:  By Melody O’Neil

boy learning at table

This is part two of the five-part series, What Is a Language-Based Learning Disability? 

Language-Based Learning Disabilities (LBLDs) refer to an array of difficulties related to the understanding or processing of both spoken and written language. The number and severity of language difficulties can vary widely from person to person. LBLDs can affect the following areas:glossary

  • reading
  • listening (auditory processing)
  • oral expression/word retrieval (expressive language)
  • oral comprehension (receptive language)
  • written expression (spelling, grammar, and mechanics)
  • mathematics

When we talk about reading, we’re referring to three main areas: decoding (word attack/phonological awareness), reading fluency, and reading comprehension.

LBLD, Dyslexia, and Related Disabilities

An individual diagnosed with an LBLD often has the specific diagnosis of dyslexia. Dyslexia is a phonologically-based reading disability that results in difficulty decoding words accurately, which affects reading fluency and then reading comprehension. struggles of LBLD graphicNot all people diagnosed with an LBLD have dyslexia, although the majority will. It may be that their basic decoding and reading skills are intact; however, they may struggle with other areas of language processing and written or verbal expression. These difficulties may include:

  • dysgraphia, a disorder that affects spelling, punctuation, and handwriting
  • dyscalculia, a disorder that affects someone’s number sense, math reasoning, and ability to process math facts
  • executive functioning, which limits one’s capacity to initiate and complete tasks, stay organized, manage time, and plan
  • a language disorder (formerly called mixed receptive-expressive language disorder) that affects written and oral comprehension and expression

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and anxiety disorders are often seen as comorbid, or commonly occurring diagnoses for people with LBLDs.

Understanding the Cognitive Profile

big picture thinkerAn extremely important piece in defining and diagnosing an LBLD includes looking carefully at the individual’s cognitive profile. A person with an LBLD is going to have difficulties in reading, writing, listening, and speaking, despite having average to above-average cognitive ability, specifically in the areas of verbal comprehension, visual-spatial abilities, and fluid reasoning or problem solving. Although the LBLD individual may have somewhat lower working memory and/or processing speed, they have an overall strong ability for reasoning, problem solving, and “big-picture thinking.” They are bright, visual, and hands-on kinesthetic learners who tend to struggle more auditorily (listening).


Next Steps

If you feel that your child/student is struggling at school and suspect that they may have an LBLD, the first step to take is to have either psycho-educational testing (done through the public school system) or neuropsychological testing (done privately). Testing will provide information regarding current levels of cognitive, academic, and language functioning. This will also help with making recommendations regarding possible next steps to take and services that may be needed. Most importantly, continue to encourage your child/student, understand they are struggling, and remember that support is available for all types of learners. 


About the Author

Melody O'Neil Landmark School AdmissionsMelody O’Neil is Associate Director of Admission at Landmark School





What Is a Language-Based Learning Disability? Five Part Series

This is part two of the five-part series, What Is a Language-Based Learning Disability?

Part One: What We Know About LBLD and Learning, by Bob Broudoflame
Part Two: Language-Based Learning Disabilities: A Primer, by Melody O'Neil
Part Three: Help Your Struggling Learner: Remediation Is a Key to Success, by Christine Ozahowski
Part Four: It's a Myth That Young Children Cannot Be Screened for Dyslexia, by Nadine Gaab, PhD
Part Five: Language-Based Learning Disabilities on the Homefront, by Angela Timpone Gowans

brilliance award winner icon's post by Bob Broudo about LBLD and Learning won a 2017 Gold InspirED School Marketers Brilliance Award in the national competition that recognizes excellence in private and independent school marketing and communications.

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Tags:  dyslexia language-based learning disability dyscalculia dysgraphia Executive Functioning language disorder decoding reading fluency word attack phonological awareness

A Guide to Early Markers of Dyslexia

Blog Type:  Learning Disabilities Date Posted:  Monday, March 16, 2020 Byline:  By Molly Ness, Ph.D.

girl reading

This article originally appeared on

Along with parents and caregivers, early educators lay the foundation for children’s lifelong learning. One of their most essential roles is to provide children with a solid start in reading development.

For too many children, however, reading acquisition is a struggle. Many demonstrate the early markers of dyslexia, a language-based reading disability that historically affects 10-15% of children (Cortiella & Horowitz, 2014).

Here’s an abbreviated definition from the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) (2002):

"Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological [sound processing] component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction."

Cutting-edge neuroimaging studies in infants and toddlers show that dyslexia is associated with structural alterations in the portions of the brain that support reading (Ozerno-Palchik & Gaab, 2016). But despite dyslexia's neurobiological roots, a bevy of misconceptions remain. Dyslexia is not directly a comprehension problem, though children who struggle with reading may develop comprehension problems. Nor is dyslexia caused by visual deficits. Simply put, dyslexia is not seeing words and/or letters backwards, reversed, jumbled, or transposed. In fact, a 2009 paper from the American Academy of Pediatrics states emphatically that vision problems are not the cause of dyslexia.

As advocated by professional organizations such as the International Dyslexia Association, the International Literacy Association, and the Learning Disabilities Association of America, early prediction and identification of children with dyslexia is essential. As numerous states roll out legislation outlining plans for early screening and effective instruction, early childhood educators and parents can serve as partners in early identification.

What to Look for Early On

When parents and early childhood educators understand dyslexia as a deficit in a child’s ability to understand sound structures, they are better prepared to observe some of the early warning signs. Phonological awareness is a fundamental literacy skill; it enables children to take a stream of oral language and divide it into individual words, words into syllables, and syllables into individual sounds. 

Without firm phonological awareness skills, children may struggle to match letter names to their corresponding sounds (e.g. the letter name is M and its corresponding sound is /m/), struggle to segment words into their parts (e.g. cowboy broken into cow-boy), and struggle to blend individual sounds into larger words (e.g. /b/ /a/ /t/ into bat) or manipulate sounds (e.g., what’s bat without the /b/ at the beginning?).

We now know that the precursors of dyslexia are visible as early as age 3, demonstrated in weakness in phonological skills, letter knowledge, rapid naming, and working memory (Gaab, 2017). None of these behaviors stands alone in a diagnosis of dyslexia, but the following are early markers of dyslexia. 

Family and Medical History Relevant at All Ages

Potential Signs of Dyslexia in Toddlers and Preschoolers

  • May have difficulty pronouncing words (e.g., busgetti for spaghetti, aminal for animal)
  • May be unable to recall the right word
  • May have trouble recognizing and remembering rhyme
  • May have delays in speech development or production
  • May use ambiguous language or struggle to provide specific words
  • May have difficulty learning or remembering names of letters
  • May not be able to recognize the letters in his/her own name

Potential Signs of Dyslexia in Kindergarten and Grade 1

  • May have trouble manipulating portions of words (e.g., "Say birthday. Now say birthday without saying birth")
  • May have pervasive baby talk
  • May be unable to sound out simple words like mapbatpig
  • May have trouble identifying sounds in a word (e.g., “What is the last sound that you hear in mop?”)
  • May have trouble identifying letter sounds and names (e.g., “What letter is this? What sound does it make?")
  • May make oral reading errors that are disconnected from the words on the page
  • May give spelling/writing that is usually difficult to decipher
  • May struggle to blend sounds together (“Can you push these sounds together for me to tell me the word they make? /c/ /a/ /t/")

Potential Signs of Dyslexia in Second Grade and Beyond

  • May show frustration, such as avoiding reading, complaining that reading is too hard
  • May have difficulty with handwriting
  • May have difficulty with spelling
  • May have difficulty decoding unfamiliar words
  • May demonstrate slow or laborious reading
  • May struggle to recall or understand what s/he reads
  • May have difficulty remembering high-frequency words
  • May need additional time providing oral responses to questions

As many states and school systems adopt universal early screenings for dyslexia, teachers must collect classroom data, document student progress, and conduct assessments that help identify children in need of more comprehensive evaluations. These observations and teacher knowledge provide important insight for the literacy specialists, reading clinicians, and school psychologists who can provide formal diagnoses of dyslexia. And don’t forget, parents can help.

About the Authors

Molly Ness, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Graduate School of Education at Fordham University. She previously directed the McGuffey Reading Clinic at the University of Virginia. She is the author of four books and numerous articles. In addition to writing about teachers’ knowledge of dyslexia, her forthcoming publication encourages pediatricians to be advocates in the early identification of children with dyslexia. She can be reached at and

J. Richard Gentry, Ph.D., is an independent researcher, author, and educational consultant and a former university professor, reading center director, and elementary school teacher. He is the author of 17 books, including the recently released Brain Words: How the Science of Reading Informs Teaching (Stenhouse, 2019), co-authored with Canadian psychologist Gene Ouellette. Richard speaks nationally and internationally at educational conferences and blogs for Psychology Today. He earned his elementary education degree from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and a Ph.D. in reading education from the University of Virginia. Dr. Gentry currently resides in Mobile, Alabama, and can be reached at For more visit his website .


American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Children with Disabilities, Marican Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, & American Association of Certified Orthoptists (2019). Joint statement – Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision. DOI10.1542/ped.2009.1445

Cortiella, C. & Horowitz, H. (2014). The state of learning disabilities: Facts, trends and emerging issues. New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities.

Gaab, N. (2017). It’s a myth that young children cannot be screened for dyslexia. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association.

International Dyslexia Association (2002). 

Ozernov-Palchik, O. & Gaab, N. (2016). Tackling the ‘dyslexia paradox’: Reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexiaCognitive Science

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