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ADHD

Tips for Parents Who Suspect Their Child Has a Learning Disability

Blog Type:  Learning Disabilities Date Posted:  Friday, September 14, 2018

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By Ann Andrew

Parents know their children better than anyone else and can usually sense if something isn’t quite right with them physically, emotionally, or academically. If you suspect that your child has a learning disability, then it’s very likely there is one. I know this from experience. As an elementary school student, my oldest son struggled in school, particularly with reading. An intelligent boy, I assumed his difficulties stemmed from some sort of learning disability. He was diagnosed with dyslexia in 2011 (my two other sons were subsequently also diagnosed with dyslexia), and since then I have devoted myself to helping students with language-based learning disabilities (LBLD). LBLDs fall under the broader category of specific learning disabilities (SLD), and dyslexia is the most common SLD, according to the National Center for Learning Disabilities.

"A child who read for 20 minutes a day is exposed to 1.8 million words a year."

Be Honest With Your Child

Your child knows they’re different. Don't try to hide what you know or suspect from them. A parent who keeps the information from them leaves the child feeling like the parent is ashamed of the child's learning difference. Your child will also benefit from speaking to a professional (neuropsychologist, school psychologist, therapist with a comprehensive understanding of LDs) once—or many times. Children need to have at least a basic understanding of the science behind how we learn to acquire language—read, and write. They need to hear from as many adults as possible that they are not “broken” or “dumb.”

Early Signs of Dyslexia and Other LBLDs

If you struggled to read (or do math or write), it's quite possible that you also have a learning disability that went undiagnosed. Parents with dyslexia have a 40-60 percent chance of having children with dyslexia—a clear early warning sign that your child may have an LBLD. Your hatred of a subject is probably borne from not being taught in a manner that was accessible to your learning style or disability.

Oral (expressive) language deficit: It’s a warning sign if you have a chit-chatting toddler who is making indecipherable sounds and words or seems challenged by learning new words.

Auditory (receptive) language deficit: Ask questions if a doctor has diagnosed your child with ADHD without addressing the possibility of an LBLD or an auditory processing disorder. Children with ADHD have the ability to process language, while children with an LBLD have a weakened ability in this area. Their slower processing of language impedes their capacity to comprehend spoken language. For these children, it is not an “inattention issue.” To complicate matters it's very common to see comorbidity (the presence of more than one distinct condition) of ADHD and dyslexia together.

Executive functioning deficits: Difficulties with attention, organization, and self-regulation are often comorbid with LBLD.

Social skills deficits: Often excused as “developmental delays,” social skills deficits can also be comorbid with learning disabilities. Ask your child’s preschool teacher if they play appropriately in school. Have they progressed from parallel to cooperative play successfully? Are they well liked by their peers or often misunderstood? Observe your child at school and see how other children interact with them in that setting. Children with dyslexia and other LBLDs can present symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional behavior, or disengaged behavior, in school and/or at home, which can be effects of being misunderstood or repeatedly asked to do something they do not have the skill yet to accomplish.

Facts vs Myths

Myth: Boys develop slower.
Fact: It’s not scientifically proven that one gender develops faster than the other.

Myth: We should wait and see what happens with our struggling children. “Teacher so-and-so is really good at helping kids who are struggling to read."
Fact: With early, intensive, and evidence-based intervention and instruction, children with dyslexia and other LBLDs can learn to read like their non-dyslexic peers.

Myth: Accommodations or modifications are sufficient for children with LBLDs.
Fact: Dyslexia and other LBLDs can be remediated. The longer you wait to obtain the diagnosis, the harder and more expensive it is to remediate. Accommodations or modifications without a diagnosis will not unlock your child’s potential.

Myth: People with dyslexia will never enjoy reading.
Fact: Many, many individuals with dyslexia love to read and are voracious readers. A child who reads for 20 minutes a day is exposed to 1.8 million words a year. These words help to foster a love of learning, the belief that you can dream big and achieve those goals, and confidence to make a smooth transition to college, employment, and independent living.

Parent To Do List

No two children share the same learning profile, so there’s no one-size-fits-all path to diagnosis and services. Based on my experience, here are my suggestions on how to navigate the special education landscape.

Initial diagnostic evaluations Obtain a full audiological and full vision evaluation (not a screening by the pediatrician or the school) prior to or in conjunction with any evaluation for LBLDs. Note that some advocates suggest that the child has the vision evaluation before any other testing. In addition, neuropsychologists can test for auditory processing issues and recommend a full audiological evaluation if they feel one is necessary.

If you are going to have your school district evaluate the child, be sure to put in writing that you are requesting the audiological evaluation for hearing and auditory processing be conducted by an audiologist, a vision and visual processing evaluation by an ophthalmologist, and a full neuropsychological evaluation by a neuropsychologist. This will give you a stronger opportunity to exercise your right to these types of professionals as independent evaluators if you feel the district fails to provide a comprehensive, accurate, and complete report for all areas of suspected need.

Note that school districts are required to administer a psychoeducational evaluation on request. Some may also perform a neuropsychological evaluation under certain circumstances. In a perfect world, your district would comply with all of your requests. However, few have the resources to provide the extensive testing your child may need.

You can request that the neuropsychologist observe your child over multiple days and in multiple settings (not just school), as well as attend the IEP meetings to present the report, discuss recommendations, and participate in the formulation of the IEP in the consent request. It’s unlikely that practitioners at large hospitals comply with this request, but some in private practice may.

Also, on the consent form for the neuropsychological evaluation or incorporated by reference as an attachment, document in detail all of your areas of concern—no matter how trivial they may seem. For example, a young child who doesn’t regularly turn when their name is called may have a social, hearing, or processing deficit.

From my personal experience, I recommend that your child have a neuropsychological evaluation administered by an independent neuropsychologist. Check with your insurance company to see if they cover these claims. Many will cover some, but not all, of the expense. In my opinion, this ensures that you are getting the full picture of whether or not your child is making progress, if your child has a disability, if so which one(s), how they should be remediated, at what pace you should expect results, etc.

To make sure that the evaluations are perceived as authentic and representative of the child’s entire presentation, urge private evaluators to observe the child outside of the clinical setting, collect input from the district, incorporate and correlate historical data points, provide exacting recommendations to the extent possible, and attend your IEP meeting to present the report, provide assistance during the eligibility determination, and participate in the IEP development.

Annual progress-monitoring evaluations Many schools will not conduct annual progress evaluations unless they are requested. Some evaluators will ask to see the child one year later to follow up. Schedule it on the day of the initial evaluation. Repeat key evaluations annually to cross check progress.

Tips for the IEP Meeting

Parents are the experts at the individualized education plan (IEP) meeting when it comes to their child, but to be credible we need to be aware of the laws, the academic standards, and the methodologies that will be effective for our child. Here are some tips for your IEP meeting.

  • If possible, bring an advocate to your IEP meetings.
  • It’s okay—even valuable—to record meetings.
  • Don’t sign anything except the attendance page.
  • Do not sign that you have received the meeting notes. You are not required to do so in order to obtain a copy. No matter what you write on the notes, your signature will be represented by the district as your agreement with the accuracy and completeness of what was written.
  • Follow up in writing. Keep records of all correspondence.
  • Invite your principal to attend meetings.

Key Components of the IEP For every accommodation on an IEP, there should be a corresponding IEP goal, which is designed to build the skill that is missing and thus replace the need for an accommodation. Accommodations are never a substitute for teaching.

How IEP goals are measured is one of the most critical aspects of an IEP. Without solid forms of measurements that are quantifiable and standardized in nature, any teacher can say a child is "making progress" while the student is instead floundering or even regressing.  

School district's can and do provide one-to-one special education instruction to students outside of school hours—even on weekends—in order to meet the needs of the student whose parents vigorously advocate.

If your child has met all of their goals and is within average range percentile-wise of grade level, then the IEP is working. Just because a child can see when we put glasses on them doesn't mean we can take away the glasses. It means we continue on the same path of intervention we were on to ensure the continued growth.  

The road for parents of children with a learning disability is very rarely smooth. It requires time, persistence, and patience. Your dedication is well worth the effort when you watch your child(ren) transform from struggling students to thriving, enthusiastic learners. Trust your gut and take action.

Related Resources:

About the Author

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Ann Andrew is a parent, educator, and advocate with a passion for helping students with language-based learning disabilities. Cynthia Moore, of Advocate Tip of the Day™, contributed to this blog post.]]>

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Tags:  ADHD auditory processing dyslexia awareness Executive Functioning expressive language IEP individualized education plan language-based learning disability learning differences learning disability neuropsychological evaluation oral language social skills specific learning disability

Learning with ADHD

Blog Type:  Learning Date Posted:  Monday, January 26, 2015

By Edward Hallowell, M.D., Ed.D. 

Learning with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is difficult, at best. I know because I have both ADHD and dyslexia. A phrase that I have come up with that I think best exemplifies what it is like living with ADHD is that it’s like “having a Ferrari engine for a brain with bicycle brakes.” The good news is that there are ways to strengthen these bicycle breaks to help stay on track and manage those Ferrari engine-like thoughts.

With the New Year steadily underway, there has never been a better time to take charge and evaluate what works best in trying to provide guidance to those with ADHD or, if you yourself have ADHD, finding the measures to take that work well for you. What has helped me most to overpower my ADHD began when I was in first grade. My teacher, Mrs. Eldredge, made it a point to make her students feel safe—whether they had ADHD or not—to inquire about anything. By eliminating fear, she allowed me to believe that I could be as successful as I wanted to be. I have carried this notion with me throughout my life and have instilled this belief in the patients, both children and adults, that I work with today. Having a confident mindset to take on any task will make you unstoppable. Another tip to help stay on track is to follow a schedule. Everyone needs structure, especially children, but for those who have ADHD, schedules and rules are as essential as maps and roads are for drivers. Without them, these kids can get completely lost.

With encouraging teachers and setting an organized, well-defined schedule, students will not only be more productive,  but also more excited to succeed.

dr. edward hallowell headshot

Dr. Hallowell is a child and adult psychiatrist, author, speaker, and leading authority  in the field of ADHD. Founder of the Hallowell Centers in New York and Boston. but also more excited to succeed.

 

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Tags:  ADHD adult psychiatrist attention deficit hyperactivity disorder child psychiatrist confident mind set Dr. Edward Hallowell dyslexia eliminating fear guidance Landmark School language-based learning disability Ned Hallowell student productivity student success

A Guide to Early Markers of Dyslexia

Blog Type:  Learning Disabilities Date Posted:  Monday, March 16, 2020 Byline:  By Molly Ness, Ph.D.

girl reading

This article originally appeared on PsychologyToday.com.

Along with parents and caregivers, early educators lay the foundation for children’s lifelong learning. One of their most essential roles is to provide children with a solid start in reading development.

For too many children, however, reading acquisition is a struggle. Many demonstrate the early markers of dyslexia, a language-based reading disability that historically affects 10-15% of children (Cortiella & Horowitz, 2014).

Here’s an abbreviated definition from the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) (2002):

"Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological [sound processing] component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction."

Cutting-edge neuroimaging studies in infants and toddlers show that dyslexia is associated with structural alterations in the portions of the brain that support reading (Ozerno-Palchik & Gaab, 2016). But despite dyslexia's neurobiological roots, a bevy of misconceptions remain. Dyslexia is not directly a comprehension problem, though children who struggle with reading may develop comprehension problems. Nor is dyslexia caused by visual deficits. Simply put, dyslexia is not seeing words and/or letters backwards, reversed, jumbled, or transposed. In fact, a 2009 paper from the American Academy of Pediatrics states emphatically that vision problems are not the cause of dyslexia.

As advocated by professional organizations such as the International Dyslexia Association, the International Literacy Association, and the Learning Disabilities Association of America, early prediction and identification of children with dyslexia is essential. As numerous states roll out legislation outlining plans for early screening and effective instruction, early childhood educators and parents can serve as partners in early identification.

What to Look for Early On

When parents and early childhood educators understand dyslexia as a deficit in a child’s ability to understand sound structures, they are better prepared to observe some of the early warning signs. Phonological awareness is a fundamental literacy skill; it enables children to take a stream of oral language and divide it into individual words, words into syllables, and syllables into individual sounds. 

Without firm phonological awareness skills, children may struggle to match letter names to their corresponding sounds (e.g. the letter name is M and its corresponding sound is /m/), struggle to segment words into their parts (e.g. cowboy broken into cow-boy), and struggle to blend individual sounds into larger words (e.g. /b/ /a/ /t/ into bat) or manipulate sounds (e.g., what’s bat without the /b/ at the beginning?).

We now know that the precursors of dyslexia are visible as early as age 3, demonstrated in weakness in phonological skills, letter knowledge, rapid naming, and working memory (Gaab, 2017). None of these behaviors stands alone in a diagnosis of dyslexia, but the following are early markers of dyslexia. 

Family and Medical History Relevant at All Ages

Potential Signs of Dyslexia in Toddlers and Preschoolers

  • May have difficulty pronouncing words (e.g., busgetti for spaghetti, aminal for animal)
  • May be unable to recall the right word
  • May have trouble recognizing and remembering rhyme
  • May have delays in speech development or production
  • May use ambiguous language or struggle to provide specific words
  • May have difficulty learning or remembering names of letters
  • May not be able to recognize the letters in his/her own name

Potential Signs of Dyslexia in Kindergarten and Grade 1

  • May have trouble manipulating portions of words (e.g., "Say birthday. Now say birthday without saying birth")
  • May have pervasive baby talk
  • May be unable to sound out simple words like mapbatpig
  • May have trouble identifying sounds in a word (e.g., “What is the last sound that you hear in mop?”)
  • May have trouble identifying letter sounds and names (e.g., “What letter is this? What sound does it make?")
  • May make oral reading errors that are disconnected from the words on the page
  • May give spelling/writing that is usually difficult to decipher
  • May struggle to blend sounds together (“Can you push these sounds together for me to tell me the word they make? /c/ /a/ /t/")

Potential Signs of Dyslexia in Second Grade and Beyond

  • May show frustration, such as avoiding reading, complaining that reading is too hard
  • May have difficulty with handwriting
  • May have difficulty with spelling
  • May have difficulty decoding unfamiliar words
  • May demonstrate slow or laborious reading
  • May struggle to recall or understand what s/he reads
  • May have difficulty remembering high-frequency words
  • May need additional time providing oral responses to questions

As many states and school systems adopt universal early screenings for dyslexia, teachers must collect classroom data, document student progress, and conduct assessments that help identify children in need of more comprehensive evaluations. These observations and teacher knowledge provide important insight for the literacy specialists, reading clinicians, and school psychologists who can provide formal diagnoses of dyslexia. And don’t forget, parents can help.

About the Authors

Molly Ness, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Graduate School of Education at Fordham University. She previously directed the McGuffey Reading Clinic at the University of Virginia. She is the author of four books and numerous articles. In addition to writing about teachers’ knowledge of dyslexia, her forthcoming publication encourages pediatricians to be advocates in the early identification of children with dyslexia. She can be reached at molly@drmollyness.com and www.drmollyness.com.

J. Richard Gentry, Ph.D., is an independent researcher, author, and educational consultant and a former university professor, reading center director, and elementary school teacher. He is the author of 17 books, including the recently released Brain Words: How the Science of Reading Informs Teaching (Stenhouse, 2019), co-authored with Canadian psychologist Gene Ouellette. Richard speaks nationally and internationally at educational conferences and blogs for Psychology Today. He earned his elementary education degree from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and a Ph.D. in reading education from the University of Virginia. Dr. Gentry currently resides in Mobile, Alabama, and can be reached at Richard@jrichardgentry.com. For more visit his website www.jrichardgentry.com .

References

American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Children with Disabilities, Marican Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, & American Association of Certified Orthoptists (2019). Joint statement – Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision. www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10/1542/ped.2009-1445. DOI10.1542/ped.2009.1445

Cortiella, C. & Horowitz, H. (2014). The state of learning disabilities: Facts, trends and emerging issues. New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities.

Gaab, N. (2017). It’s a myth that young children cannot be screened for dyslexia. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association.

International Dyslexia Association (2002). https://dyslexiaida.org/definition-of-dyslexia/ 

Ozernov-Palchik, O. & Gaab, N. (2016). Tackling the ‘dyslexia paradox’: Reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexiaCognitive Science

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